ESCRIMA – THE MARTIAL ART FROM THE PHILIPPINES
Although the Spanish term "Arnis de Mano" actually means the art or protection (lit. harnessing) of the hand, it refers to a self-defence system originating in the Philippines which mainly uses sharp blades, sticks and other weapons. Weaponless hand techniques are seen as only secondary in this art. While this fighting system was little known in Europe for a long time, it is widespread in America owing to the large number of Philippinos who have emigrated to the USA. Once also referred to as Kali, this art is now usually called "Arnis (de Mano)" or by another Spanish name "Escrima", which roughly means skirmish or combat. This art has a long and violent history which can be traced back to the year 1521, when the Philippines were conquered by the Spanish. Previously Arnis de Mano had been taught in the same measure as reading, writing, religion and Sanskrit, and constituted a form of military training for the children of the warrior class. The Spanish had great difficulty in imposing their will on the inhabitants, who wielded their bolos, daggers and sticks to deadly effect. It was only by the use of firearms that the Spanish were able to create a semblance of order. By the 18th century the Spanish had the Philippines firmly under their control and practicing or learning Arnis de Mano was strictly forbidden (just as the Japanese had forbidden the inhabitants of Okinawa from carrying weapons). Carrying a bolo (similar to a machete) or a dagger was also not allowed. These prohibitions were intended to "civilise" the hot-blooded Philippinos. Accordingly, Arnis de Mano became a clandestine art (like Karate in Okinawa) which was only taught in secret. When it reemerged from its secret world it had become unrecognisable to the Spanish, for Arnis de Mano was disguised as a dance to the local folk music, with the movements performed as graceful dance steps without weapons (similar to the Brasilian Capoeira). Indeed even the Spanish found this "dance" appealing, allowing it to be publicly performed during ceremonial events. However, the real Arnis de Mano had by no means died out, as the occupying power often found to its cost whenever another revolt took place. From generation to generation these many different regional fighting styles, collectively known as ”Arnis de Mano”, were kept alive and passed on down the centuries. When Spanish colonial rule ended in 1898 and the Americans took over, the prohibition was repealed. Sporting competitions were held openly on public holidays, however the teachers still refused to "open their doors" and Arnis remained a secret art. There was still plenty of fighting to be done in the years to come, for when war was declared the Japanese overran the Philippines and many Philippinos fought alongside the Americans in guerilla units. There were numerous incidents of close-quarter combat in which many owed their lives to their Arnis training. Their official weapon, the machete, was very similar to their traditional weapon, the bolo, which meant that they were able to refine their techniques in real combat over a long period of time. The Philippines remained a violent place to be even after the war. In 1967 the city of San Juan was the first to impose a ban on the use of the nunchaku. And in September 1972 it was only by imposing martial law that the President was able to end the habit of resolving personal disagreements with firearms, knives and other deadly weapons. After the war many Philippinos emigrated to the United States, taking Arnis de Mano with them of course. Most of them became resident in Hawaii and in Stockton, California, from where Arnis/Escrima began its spread onto the American martial arts scene. The rediscovery of Escrima is in some measure due to the late Bruce Lee. By demonstrating the use of the Philippine sticks in his films "Enter the Dragon" and "Game of Death" he brought the old martial art of Escrima back into public awareness.
BILL NEWMANN – THE FATHER OF ESCRIMA IN EUROPE
The current popularity of Escrima in Europe is in large measure due to the commitment, the enthusiasm and not least the outstanding knowledge and skill of Grandmaster Bill Newman. He has guided and characterised the development of Escrima more than practically any other. Bill Newman's interest in the martial arts began in the early 1960s. At that time the only Asian martial arts familiar in the West were Judo and Ju-Jitsu. By chance he got to know the martial arts pioneer Brian Jones and became his personal student, learning a mixture of Wado Ryu Karate and Wing Chun and training with him enthusiastically every day for seven years. One day Bill Newman heard from his training partner Dick Morris that the Escrima instructor René Latosa lived not far from his house and was giving lessons in Philippine armed combat. Newman immediately became curious about this exotic martial art and started training with Latosa, who also introduced him to several of the great old escrimadores such as Angel Cabales, Leo Giron and John Latosa. For some years Newman and Latosa trained together, travelled throughout Europe and introduced this still completely unknown style to the martial arts world. In November 1977, they were invited to Kiel by Keith R. Kernspecht to hold an Escrima seminar there. Grandmaster Kernspecht had read about them in various martial arts magazines and wanted to see Escrima for himself. Fortunately he was also an author and the owner of a publishing company, and decided on the spot to write a book about Escrima. The first and only book about this Philippine martial art was published by Wu Shu Verlag in 1979, with many subsequent editions over the next twenty years owing to the large demand. Having completed his tour of military duty in Europe, René Latosa returned to the USA and Bill Newman continued to teach Escrima in Europe under the aegis of the European WingTsun Organisation (EWTO). He travelled to the USA regularly to learn from the best teachers of Escrima and in order to teach his European students to the highest possible standard. Philippine Escrima also gave Bill Newman access to the great tradition of European weapons skills. In decades of research, he rediscovered numerous occidental weapons and combat concepts which were now familiar to only a few specialists. He examined the possible application of Escrima principles to these "exotic" weapons and built up a new "medieval and ancient weapons" section for the escrimadores in the EWTO. Grandmaster Bill Newman has travelled the world tirelessly for more than thirty years to teach a constantly growing number of enthusiastic escrimadores the traditional armed combat skills of South-East Asia and Europe.
Grandmaster Bill Newman